Vitamins and Supplements

Vitamin A - Vitamin A interferes with vitamin D, both impacting absorption and metabolic activity. Thus a balanced ratio of vitamin A and vitamin D should be consumed. More vitamin D than vitamin A should be consumed.

Beta Carotene - Humans can make Vitamin A from beta carotene. Large supplementation amounts are generally very safe. An average sized carrot provides 5,000 IU.

B Vitamins - generally should all be taken together in the correct proportions, also should be taken in smaller doses several times per day. Increased protein consumption (common in USA diets) should be accompanied by an increase in B vitamins. B-Vitamins have a half life of four to five hours, yet benefits from supplementation can last ten weeks.

B1 (Thiamine) -

Benfotiamine - a fat soluble form of vitamin B1. Benfotiamine assists with blood sugar metabolism. Benfotiamine activates transketolase which renders triosephosphates harmless, thus inhibiting glycation damage. Dosage: 320 mg to 1050mg per day [LEF article April 2008 page 43]

B2 (Riboflavin) -

B3 (Niacin) -

B5 (Pantothenic Acid) - is an important factor in the production of coenzyme A (CoA), which plays an important role in the Krebs cycle, fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol metabolism.

B6 (Pyridoxine) - Pyridoxine is the inexpensive form found in most supplements. More effective forms are pyridoxamine and P5P (pyridoxal-5-phosphate).

B12 (Cyanocobalamin or Methylcobalamin) -

Biotin - is involved in energy metabolism (glucose and fats); is involved in pH maintenance via carbon dioxide binding; helps regulate cell growth.

Folic Acid - obtained from food sources as Folate (Note: folic acid is twice as bio-available as folate, thus you would need 1600 mcg of folate to equal 800 mcg of folic acid) Superior quality supplements use 5-MTHF and 5-formyl-THF.

Betaine (TMG - Trimethylglycine) - Average American consumes 500 to 2000 mg per day (from food). Sufficient betaine might be a much cheaper alternative than supplemental SAM. If you experience discomfort during a meal try taking betaine at the beginning of meals. (If you experience discomfort after meals try pancreatic enzymes during meals.) Betaine is a metabolite of choline.

Choline - most people consume 300 mg to 1000 mg per day in their diet. Choline is important to fight high cholesterol.

"Detopoulou and co-workers report that the highest average intake of choline (above 310 mg per day) was associated with CRP, IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels 22%, 26% and 6% lower, respectively, than in people with the lowest average intake (less than 250 mg per day)." [American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008]

Inositol - occurs in the body in two primary forms: myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol. Typically "inositol" refers to "myoinositol".

PABA (Para-Aminobenzoic Acid) -

Pangamic Acid -

Vitamin C - Leafy plants like lettuce will lose 90% of their vitamin C content within 36 to 48 hours. Animals produce about 4,000 mg of Vit C per 150 pounds. Because we often consume a diet lacking vitamin C and humans are unable to synthesize vitamin C this is a vitamin that is critical to supplement. Generally a healthy adult male (approx 154 lbs) should supplement with 2,000 to 4,000 mg of Vit C per day.

The NIH released a news report, on August 4th, 2008, that IV Vitamin C actually does fight cancer (just like Linus Pauling said decades ago).

Anyone with stress (aka everyone) needs supplemental vitamin C.

Vitamin C requirement depends upon glucose levels. Vitamin C competes with glucose for transport into cells, thus a high blood sugar level deprives cells of vitamin C. Someone living on a standard American diet may benefit from 4,000 to 7,000 mg per day of supplemental vitamin C, whereas a person living on a nearly exclusively meat diet may achieve optimum health with only 500 mg per day of supplemental vitamin C.

Vitamin D - benefits include absorption of calcium, protection against cancer and cardiovascular disease, protection against radiation, and a significant role in the immune system.

Vitamin E - historically has mostly been provided as a supplement in the form of alpha tocopherol, however this is only one of the eight forms which make up the general category called "Vitamin E".

Vitamin K - A study of 564 women (average age 67) showed high consumption of K-2 (about 45 micrograms per day) is associated with 20% decreased coronary calcification compared to low consumption of K-2 (about 18 micrograms per day). 54% of dietary K2 was from cheese. Average dietary intake of K2 was 31.6 mcg. (82% of dietary K1 is from vegetables - average intake of 217 mcg)

Vitamin K (specifically K2) turns off excess osteoclast (bone dissolving) activity and works with vitamin D and calcium for osteoblast (bone building) to remove calcium from blood and to put it into building strong bones.

Vitamin K is produced by bacteria in our digestive tract. If you are not using probiotics then it is especially important to supplement with vitamin K (K2).

Bioflavonoids (Vitamin P)

Quercetin is a bioflavonoid which is very beneficial for reducing inflammation of the digestive tract. Quercetin is an anti-oxidant and works in synergy with vitamin C (vitamin C refreshes quercetin by providing hydrogen to oxidized quercetin). Quercetin may be one of the most potent anticarcinogens in nature [Patrick Quillin]. Capillary fragility is reduced by quercetin.

Alcohol consumption dramatically increases the need for vitamins. Anyone that routinely drinks alcohol should probably take ten times the amount of vitamins of a healthy normal person. (some sources advise as much as 100 times the normal intake! )

Smoking also dramatically increases the need for vitamins.